Software Complexity Issue

Software is becoming more and more complex, and it becomes more and more difficult to understand what a piece of software does, how it works (internally), and whether or not the program exhibits undesirable behavior (for example: privacy violations, security holes).

We like to think of software as an uninterpreted sequence of machine instructions, but this is not the case. Software can be understood as any other artifact: it has a purpose, internal structure (which determines its function), and behavior (which might or might not violate that purpose).

When people give names to different levels of software understanding,they are really talking about the different purposes that the software might serve. The lowest level, which is closest to the machine instructions, is called “source code”. This is the level at which a programmer writes a program in a particular programming language. The next level up is called “machine code” or “object code”. This is the level at which a computer actually executes a program. The next level up is called “binary code” or “hexadecimal code”. This is the level at which a computer stores a program. The highest level is called “assembly language”. This is the level at which a programmer thinks about a program.

The solution

In order to understand and reason about software, we need tools that can help us see the artifact for what it is. We need tools that can help us navigate the internal structure of the software, and understand how it behaves. We also need tools that can help us explore the different purposes that the software might serve.

One such tool is a version control system, which helps to reason about the changes in a piece of software over time. All these tools have different properties,and their combination helps to create an even more complete picture of software.

The tool that is called “declarative debugging” means to say that the user encodes all the knowledge about what they want to debug in a declarative manner. This contrasts with imperative debugging, where the user has to encode how they want the system to behave in an imperative manner.

Declarative debugging

The use of a declarative debugger starts with the declaration of a problem, which is a description of the failure in terms that are independent of any particular implementation or program.The debugger then tries to find a solution to the problem. The key advantage of declarative debugging is that it allows the user to reason about the program in terms of high-level concepts, such as data structures and algorithms, rather than in terms of machine code or assembly language. This makes it easier for the user to understand what the program does, both conceptually and syntactically.

Other tools

Another tool that is involved in declarative debugging is static analysis , which means to say that the tool can analyze a program without actually running it. Static analysis can have many goals, but one of them is to find problems in a program without running it. Static analysis can be useful for finding security holes, or simply to understand how the code works, thus making declarative debugging more effective. It can also be used together with testing to further improve reliability and correctness of software. Another tool that complements declarative debugging is automated decision procedures, which are tools that can help find solutions to problems by eliminating the possible options, until only one remains. Automated Decision procedures can be used both in conjunction with testing and debugging.

Some tools for automatic program verification, such as the Coq proof assistant,are able to automatically provide properties about a program. This can be used to verify that a program does what is expected of it, or to find errors in the program.

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